Throwing checked exceptions with CompletableFuture

Gili

Stackoverflow contains multiple questions about mixing checked exceptions with CompletableFuture.

Here are a few examples:

While some of answers hint at the use of CompletableFuture.completeExceptionally() their approach results in user code that is difficult to read.

I will use this space to provide an alternate solution that results in improved readability.

Please note that this question is specific to CompletableFuture. This allows us to provide solutions that do not extend to lambda expressions more generally.

Gili

Given the Completions utility class (provided below) users can throw checked exceptions seamlessly:

public CompletionStage<String> readLine()
{
  return Completions.supplyAsync(() ->
  {
    try (BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new FileReader("test.txt")))
    {
      return br.readLine();
    }
  });
}

Any exceptions thrown by the lambda (checked or not) will be wrapped in a CompletionException, which is consistent with CompletableFuture's behavior for unchecked exceptions.

Things get a bit uglier for intermediate steps like thenApply() but it's not the end of the world:

public CompletionStage<String> transformLine()
{
  return readLine().thenApply(line ->
    Completions.wrapExceptions(() ->
    {
      if (line.contains("%"))
        throw new IOException("Lines may not contain '%': " + line);
      return "transformed: " + line;
    }));
}

Here some methods from the Completions utility class. You can wrap other CompletableFuture methods this way.

/**
 * Helper functions for {@code CompletionStage}.
 *
 * @author Gili Tzabari
 */
public final class Completions
{
    /**
     * Returns a {@code CompletionStage} that is completed with the value or exception of the {@code CompletionStage}
     * returned by {@code callable} using the supplied {@code executor}. If {@code callable} throws an exception the
     * returned {@code CompletionStage} is completed with it.
     *
     * @param <T>      the type of value returned by {@code callable}
     * @param callable returns a value
     * @param executor the executor that will run {@code callable}
     * @return the value returned by {@code callable}
     */
    public static <T> CompletionStage<T> supplyAsync(Callable<T> callable, Executor executor)
    {
        return CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(() -> wrapExceptions(callable), executor);
    }

    /**
     * Wraps or replaces exceptions thrown by an operation with {@code CompletionException}.
     * <p>
     * If the exception is designed to wrap other exceptions, such as {@code ExecutionException}, its underlying cause is wrapped; otherwise the
     * top-level exception is wrapped.
     *
     * @param <T>      the type of value returned by the callable
     * @param callable an operation that returns a value
     * @return the value returned by the callable
     * @throws CompletionException if the callable throws any exceptions
     */
    public static <T> T wrapExceptions(Callable<T> callable)
    {
        try
        {
            return callable.call();
        }
        catch (CompletionException e)
        {
            // Avoid wrapping
            throw e;
        }
        catch (ExecutionException e)
        {
            throw new CompletionException(e.getCause());
        }
        catch (Throwable e)
        {
            throw new CompletionException(e);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@code CompletionStage} that is completed with the value or exception of the {@code CompletionStage}
     * returned by {@code callable} using the default executor. If {@code callable} throws an exception the returned
     * {@code CompletionStage} is completed with it.
     *
     * @param <T>      the type of value returned by the {@code callable}
     * @param callable returns a value
     * @return the value returned by {@code callable}
     */
    public static <T> CompletionStage<T> supplyAsync(Callable<T> callable)
    {
        return CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(() -> wrapExceptions(callable));
    }

    /**
     * Prevent construction.
     */
    private Completions()
    {}
}

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